堪培拉论文代写Essentiality of Microwave energy

 
 堪培拉论文代写Essentiality of Microwave energy
Introduction
This chapter relates to the impact of microwave energy on soil biota in order to understand how to continuously explore the commercial value of microwave energy in promoting green agriculture and promote productivity. Relevant discussion incudes essentiality of microwave energy, soil health, soil biodiversity, biodiversity management, normal weed control options, microwave energy weed control, commercial value of microwave energy.
 
Essentiality of Microwave energy
Microwave is an effective heating technology which is beneficial in applying in the agricultural field. Relevant studies have been conducted in relations to the role of microwave techniques in the agricultural process. Kraszewski and Nelson (2003) state that microwave energy can be utilized to improve the efficiency of crop production, handling and processing to improve the quality of products. In Brodie (2012), ‘most agricultural and forest products are a heterogeneous mixture of various organic molecules and water, arranged in various geometries’. As illustrated by Moskovskiy et al (2012), using microwave energy has many characteristics which will be listed as follows:
 
1) High efficiency of conversion of microwave energy into thermal energy ( close to 100%);
2) ‘with persistence’ heating of the object, “inside” with extremely high intensity to control temperature and speed;
3) Contactless eco-clean supply of energy;
4) Uniform heating across the mass of the product and its selectivity in the case of inequality of the dielectric properties;
5) Reduction of time and energy consumption during the process;
 
Gude, Patil, Martinez-Guerra, Deng and Nirmalakhandan (2013) define some strengths of microwave energies when applying for practical purposes:
1) The microwave heating process is fast to reach a higher temperature inside the product;
2) microwave heating leads to the uniformity of warming across the product to ensure the temperature regulation can be conducted effectively;
3) Materials can be treated properly since the electromagnetic wave does not depend on the thermal conductivity which also will not be affected by the outside environment;
4) Products which heated via microwave will have better quality to improve their competences and salabilities;
5) There is no direct connection between the heating source and products which required to be heated;
6) Better control during the process of heating or drying;
7) Reduce costs and be more environmentally friendly;
 
Herein, it is obvious that microwave energy is quite essential to better manage the heating process to prevent uncertainties while effectiveness can be optimized (Kim et al, 2011).
 
Regardless of the involvement effectiveness, speed, quality and other relevant function, implementing microwave will be ideal in satisfying needs in the modern society. IT can be regarded as a more high-tech driven technology than using traditional approach to make the entire heating process more practicable. It does not deny that conventional heating methods will be unavailable. Zhu et al (2013) put forward that selecting microwave energy is more beneficial to satisfy social, environmental and economic objectives. Microwave techniques maybe more appropriate to suit needs in the contemporary society to increase convenience to reduce time consumption (Varma, 2013). In Varma (2013), microwave energy is more environmentally friendly centric so that less pollution will be caused during the entire process. Moreover, via the highly efficiency of engaging in microwave process, more economic advantages can be gained due to the reduction of other costs such as time or the volume of energy consumption (Varma, 2013). Therefore, it is essential to confirm the positive role of microwave in participating in social, environmental or economic activities in the modern society. Herein, contents of hypothesis 1 can be certified.
 
Soil Health
It is important to understand that only if in a healthy soil environment, the quality of products can be guaranteed after planting. Health crops and healthy animals should depend on offering them a healthy soil environment. Thomsen, Faber and Sorensen (2012) describe features of a healthy soil environment include:
1) In spring, water permeability of the soil is strong which can be heated up easily;
2) After planting, soil will not be agglomerated;
3) The absorbing ability of raining is strong to prevent draining;
4) In dry seasons, healthy soil can keep moisture;
5) Effectively prevent erosion and nutrient loss;
6) Supply abundant microorganisms;
7) Do not need repeated input more manures to keep the yield;
8) Produce healthy, high quality crops;
 
Therefore, it should understand the importance of a healthy soil during the soil process, in Kraszewski & Nelson (2003), a healthy soil ecosystem promotes the precondition for a sustainable agriculture, while in a healthy soil environment, the survival capability of soil biota can be promoted, accordingly, it will be beneficial to transform, create or modify habitats for relevant products (Kraszewski & Nelson, 2003).
 
Soil Biodiversity
In practice, soil contains various kinds of soil biota. Different soil biota are important compounds within a natural system to ensure the sustainable agroecosystems to be formed (Callaway et al, 2004). In Callaway et al (2004, p. 731), ‘diverse soil microbes have profound negative and beneficial effects on plants’, continuously, ‘these different effects enable to cause dynamic feedback interactions between plants in the microbial community’. It has the implication that effective management of soil biota is important to guarantee the healthy growth of diverse soil biota. Microwave energy can be considered as effective supporting techniques to develop green agriculture and promote benign interaction between different soil microbes. Therefore, understanding the existence of diverse soil biota means it needs to manage well the biodiversity in order to better manage the soil process.
 
Biodiversity Management
In the soil process, biodiversity management is essential to guarantee the healthy soil environment in satisfying needs of green agricultural process.
 
First of all, effective biodiversity management has advantages to better manage diverse soil organisms. In Barrios (2007, p. 2), ‘the soil environment hosts a complex and diverse biological community...’, he goes on to state that ‘soil biota must be selectively studied because of their high diversity and wide distribution...’, it implies that without the effective management system, diverse concerns may become complex problems to affect the harmonious interaction within the soil.
 

Figure 2 Potential entry points for biological Management
Source: Barrios, E. (2007). Soil biota, ecosystem services and land productivity. Ecological Economics, 64(2), 269-285.
 
As illustrated by fig 2, via the effective operating of the cropping system, effective quality control of resources can will be effective to ensure proper interventions will be advantageous to promote the soil fertility health. In other words, the effective biodiversity management is able to ensure the good quality of the final production can be guaranteed via proper treatments for different soil organisms. Therefore, it is quite essential to improve the biodiversity management by effective cropping system in attempting to display more advantages of soil biota in the agricultural process;
 
Via managing soil diversity, the entire soil environment can be improved to promote quality productivity. Sojka, Upchurch and Borlaug (2003, p. 11) point out two concepts of soil quality and soil condition, further, they state that ‘soil quality reflects the capability of a kind of soil to function within natural or managed ecosystem boundaries...’, while ‘soil condition is the ability of the soil to perform according to its potential’. It implies that both quality and condition of the soil should be maintained effectively for the purpose of promoting highly quality crop production. However, biodiversity management has the function to measure activities of diverse soil biota in order to regulate their positions in the soil community (Kurják, Barhács & Beke, 2012). Therefore, it can believe that biodiversity management can be regarded as an effective approach to govern the soil community in meeting goals of the production.
 
Moreover, through biodiversity management, aboveground-belowground interactions between diverse organisms can be better managed to improve the land productivity. In Porazinska (2003, p. 377), ‘interactions at the aboveground-belowground interface provide important feedbacks that regulate ecosystem processes’. Considering the role of soil biota, it can be regarded as both the recipient of these feedbacks and the reactor to solve different kinds of situations. In fact, there exists the diverse relationship when engaging in aboveground-belowground interactions. Then the role of soil biota can be regarded as a broad concept including diverse organisms in participating in the soil process (Robinson et al, 2012). In such scenario, through effective biodiversity management, handling procedures will be helpful to classify different information in order to better utilize feedbacks to promote green crop production. Therefore, effective management of biodiversity helps to better regulate aboveground-belowground interactions to enhance the ability of crop productivity.
 
The Role Microwave Energy in Biodiversity Management
Microwave energy has its strengths to satisfy different needs of diverse soil organisms in maintaining the healthy soil environment and to promote the green crop production.
 
On one hand, microwave energy is an effective tool to enhance the effectiveness of biodiversity management. Microwave energy can be considered as an effective science techniques including biophysical traits to influence agricultural inputs (Gude et al, 2013). When implementing microwave energy, its heating function is the truth to promote the quality production, moreover, since microwave heating is able to realize the bulk heating, however, it will help to save costs and energy consumption (Borodin & Pakhomov, 2007). Moreover, in considering the waste management aspect, microwave energy will be ideal to offer the solution to optimize the biodiversity management process. In Jones et al (2002, p. 78), some potential advantages of microwave heating have been illustrated when facing the waste management issue:
1) The reduction of significant waste volume;
2) Fast speed of heating;
3) The capability of increasing temperatures quickly;
4) Optional heating;
5) Improvement of chemical reactivity;
6) Ability to treat waste;
7) Ease of control;
8) Portability of equipment and process;
 
In the context, it can believe that via these traits displayed by microwave energy, waste situations in the soil process can be decreased, accordingly, the entire biodiversity management quality can be enhanced to maintain the bio biota web. If wastes can be reduced, then interactions across the soil community will generate good feedbacks to satisfy objectives of the agricultural process (Weinberger, 2012). Therefore, it can believe the positive meaning of microwave energy in engaging in the biodiversity management to improve its effectiveness.
 
On the other hand, microwave technology helps to create an inclusive soil environment for diverse soil organisms coexist harmoniously. As discussed above that the entire soil community contains various kinds of soil biota, that is, if the interaction between them is not smooth, then inharmonious activities will lead to uncertainties to threaten the development of a healthy soil environment. Once invasive plants exist, the conservation of the natural system will be damaged to affect the production performance (Gonzalez-Quiñones et al, 2011). In practice, microwave heating has its inherent strengths to ensure the entire soil process can be optimized (Gonzalez-Quiñones et al, 2011). Moreover, via this science technology, soil structure can be properly modified in order to increase the provision of nutrition for different plants and crops to grow healthily (Weinberger, 2012). Therefore, it can believe that by means of microwave technology, the living environment for diverse soil biota can be guaranteed to promote the harmonious coexistence.
 
Applying microwave technologies enables to promote both production and reproduction of soil biota to help them grow healthily. Wagner et al (2007) put forward the technology of microwave remote sensing methods, they state that such kind of method will be sensitive to the water relevance in the surface layer especially of those bare soil lands. It has the implication that via microwave technique, available potential water resources can be effectively utilized to maintain the suitable temperature and humidity between aboveground and belowground. However, it should understand that land characteristics will be different. In Whitford (1996), diversity of desert soil organisms have been mentioned, that is, in soil organisms live in arid or semi-arid ecosystems, the situation will be different when comparing with the condition of mesic ecosystems. For soil biota, the capability of production or reproduction should consider the issue of decomposition (Wardle et al, 2004). Via microwave technology, Wagner et al (2007) continuously emphasize that the entire engagement process helps to obtain effective microwave data regarding soil moisture, further, these data can be utilized for analysis purposes to satisfy different needs of diverse soil biota. For example, the technology includes radiometry, synthetic aperture radar, scatterometry, satellite systems with operation potential to guarantee the data continuity and accuracy (Whitford, 1996). Further, proper resolutions can be generated by microwave technology to ensure diverse soil organisms can be provided with what they really need on behalf of their healthy growth (Wardle et al, 2004). In other words, without the participation of microwave technology, for those arid or semi-arid soil environment, without appropriate soil moisture, the survival rate of diverse soil organisms will be decreased, accordingly, it cannot believe that the diverse ecosystem can serve human societies to guarantee the good production and reproduction (Wardle et al, 2004). Therefore, it should have the strong awareness that microwave technique is an important and essential tool during the soil process to offer proper resolutions, then different types of lands can be satisfied to promote healthy interactions between soil organisms.
 
Normal Weed Control Options
In the light of that weed covers the soil surface, discussing the role of microwave technique is also required to analyze how can such kind of energy effectively manage weed. In Berge, Goldberg, Kaspersen and Netland (2012), some normal weed control options have been mentioned:
1)      Preventive control
This approach is the most essential control approach when discussing the weed management. The preventive action can be conducted via asking helps from weed district office or to build a site visit, accordingly, professionals can be capable of employing effective methods to deal with preventive works.
2)      Cultural control
The approach refers to using the competitive and desired vegetation in order to prevent invasions of some dangerous weedy species. The key point to lead to the success is to properly select species to ensure correct species will be posted in the proper soil environment, accordingly, moisture regime can be guaranteed to promote the growth of soil biota.
3)      Chemical control
The chemical control refers to the utilization of herbicide in order to prevent grasses from being injured. Sometimes, chemical control can be regarded as the effective and time-saving approach to ensure the effectiveness of weed management can be enhanced.
4)      Biological control
This method aims to reduce the vigor and spread of weed to improve the weed control capability. Using this approach will be helpful to strengthen the biocontrol for insects, accordingly, the weed control effectiveness can be improved. An important issue is that the goal of biological control is not the focus of eradication.  
 
5)      Mechanical controls
It refers to the physical disruption when engaging in the weed control practice. The mechanical control is helpful to skill and suppress weeds to govern the soil environment. In practice, pulling, digging, disking, plowing and mowing are popular methods to improve the effectiveness of the mechanical control. Nonetheless, it should always understand that the success of mechanical engagements should closely link the life cycle of the target weed species.
 
Microwave Energy Weed Control
Microwave technology is quite helpful to improve the weed management to remediate contaminated soil to reduce pollution while promote green agriculture. It should recognize that contaminated materials covering with the weed will damage the soil quality. In Brodie, Ryan and Lancaster (2011), microwave technologies can be considered as effective weed management approaches to offer good living environment for inside soil organisms. In practice, using microwave technology will be more innovative when comparing typical methods adopted by land managers such as fire, streaming, flaming, grazing, soil fumigants, mechanical removal, etc as revealed by Brodie et al (2011). It implies that these methods lack of chemical handling and results may not be satisfied and environmentally friendly. In xxx, implementing microwave technologies will help to offer better treatments for diverse soil biota. The advantage is that via microwave energies, positive treatment time will be increased to promote the amount of healthy soil, in the meaning, soil water contents will be increased as well (Kappe, 2004). Such kind of technology ensures seed germination can be promoted which can be considered as the soil pasteurization. Although in Brodie (2012, p. 58), ‘microwaves can kill a range of weed seeds in the soil’. It implies that microwave technology has its disadvantages which will do harm to the soil environment to fail to promote the growth of seeds. Still Brodie (2012) explains that mechanical and chemical controls will be effective when participating in weed management practices and they can benefit the cropping production. Then it implies that via microwaves, chemical control capability can be enhanced to better promote the weed management, accordingly, seed survival can be guaranteed, the temperature profile in soil can be optimized, while soil’s responses against microwave treatment will help to offer meaningful data. Luque, Menéndez, Arenillas and Cot (2012) confirm that via microwave energies, temperature distribution across the soil will be rational, and such kind of high frequency waves will be capable of improving the chemical control during the weed management process to remediate contaminated soil materials. Therefore, pollution will be reduced and the biodiversity management can be enhanced.
 
Commercial Value of Microwave Energy
In the commercial perspective, using microwave energy helps to promote the green production and reduce pollution via effectively managing soil biota according to needs of different kinds of land. Accordingly, the entire agricultural process can be promoted to develop sustainable agriculture and drive the business growth.
Wagner et al (2007) put forward the technology of microwave remote sensing methods will be sensitive to the water relevance in the surface layer especially of those bare soil lands. In this way, available potential water resources can be effectively utilized to maintain the suitable temperature and humidity between aboveground and belowground. It should understand that land characteristics will be different. In Whitford (1996), diversity of desert soil organisms have been mentioned, that is, in soil organisms live in arid or semi-arid ecosystems, the situation will be different when comparing with the condition of mesic ecosystems. For soil biota, the capability of production or reproduction should consider the issue of decomposition (Wardle et al, 2004). Via microwave technology, Wagner et al (2007) continuously emphasize that the entire engagement process helps to obtain effective microwave data regarding soil moisture so as to understand how to satisfy different needs of diverse soil biota. For example, the technology includes radiometry, synthetic aperture radar, scatterometry, satellite systems with operation potential to guarantee the data continuity and accuracy (Whitford, 1996). Proper resolutions can be generated by microwave technology to ensure diverse soil organisms can be provided with what they really need on behalf of their healthy growth (Wardle et al, 2004). Especially for those arid or semi-arid soil environment, microwave technologies help to maintain appropriate soil moisture and the survival rate of diverse soil organisms (Wardle et al, 2004). Therefore, via microwaves, soil biota can be better managed according to different types of lands to promote the green soil process in satisfying commercial requirements.
 
Conclusion
In conclusion, microwave technology is quite essential during the soil process to effectively manage weed while promote the green agricultural development. Through using microwaves, the soil biodiversity can be better managed to ensure both the production and reproduction can be enhanced. Weed covers the soil surface, in practice, using microwaves enable to effectively manage weed, accordingly, microwaves can positively influence the soil to maintain the effective interaction between diverse soil biota. Therefore, applying microwaves will be useful to satisfy various needs of diverse soil organisms and to display its commercial value.

 
References:
 
Barrios, E. (2007). Soil biota, ecosystem services and land productivity. Ecological Economics, 64(2), 269-285.
 
Berge, T. W., Goldberg, S., Kaspersen, K., & Netland, J. (2012). Towards machine vision based site-specific weed management in cereals. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 81, 79-86.
 
Borodin I. F., & Pakhomov V. I. (2007). Using microwave technology in the agricultural sector. Ecology and Agricultural Technology, 3, 239 - 246.
 
Brodie, G. (2012). Applications of Microwave Heating in Agricultural and Forestry Related Industries.
 
Brodie, G., Ryan, C., & Lancaster, C. (2011). Microwave technologies as part of an integrated weed management strategy: A Review. International Journal of Agronomy, 2012.
 
Callaway, R. M., Thelen, G. C., Rodriguez, A., & Holben, W. E. (2004). Soil biota and exotic plant invasion. Nature, 427, 731-733.
 
Gude, V. G., Patil, P., Martinez-Guerra, E., Deng, S., & Nirmalakhandan, N. (2013). Microwave energy potential for biodiesel production. Sustainable Chemical Processes, 1(1), 1-31.
 
Jones, D. A., Lelyveld, T. P., Mavrofidis, S. D., Kingman, S. W., & Miles, N. J. (2002). Microwave heating applications in environmental engineering—a review. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 34, 75-90.
 
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Kurják, Z., Barhács, A., & Beke, J. (2012). Energetic analysis of drying biological materials with high moisture content by using microwave energy. Drying Technology, 30(3), 312-319.
 
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 堪培拉论文代写Essentiality of Microwave energy
Moskovskiy, M. N., Pahomov, V. I., & Gulyaev, A. (2012). Microwave technology in agriculture and analysis of the surface the straw litter. In Animal Production Technology. International Conference of Agricultural Engineering-CIGR-AgEng 2012: Agriculture and Engineering for a Healthier Life, Valencia, Spain, 8-12 July 2012. (pp. P-0442). CIGR-EurAgEng.
 
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 堪培拉论文代写Essentiality of Microwave energy