澳洲论文代写:A research of renewable energy of the current wor

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A research of renewable energy of the current world
(Assignment 2)

Declaration
I confirm that the material contained in this assignment is my own work and has not been submitted in any other subject or course. I am aware of plagiarism and its penalties, and have acknowledged all material and sources used in the preparation of this assignment.
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The aim of this report is to take a close research into different kinds of renewable energy including wind energy, water energy and solar energy that has been widely used in the current world. The topic will be illustrated by three aspects. The first is an introduction to three kinds of renewable energy and the application in the world. Later the issue of the advantages of three specific kinds of energy will be presented through which a clear cognition about each energy kind will be witnessed. Last but not least, a forecast about into the future of wind energy, water energy and solar energy as well as other kind of renewable energy will be discussed. In the research process of different kinds of renewable energy including wind energy, water energy and solar energy, many references has been consulted to improve the academic value of the report.

 
Table of Contents
 
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.. 2
List of Figures 4
1 Introduction. 5
2 An introduction of three kinds of renewable energy. 6
2.1 Concepts 6
2.1.1 Wind Energy. 6
2.1.2 Water Energy. 7
2.1.3 Solar Energy. 8
2.2 Application of renewable energy in the world. 9
2.2.1 Wind Energy. 9
2.2.2 Water Energy. 10
2.2.3 Solar Energy. 11
3 Advantages and disadvantages exploration. 11
4 Prospect of renewable energy. 12
5 Conclusion. 13
List of References 14
 
 Australia:A research of renewable energy of the current world代写

 
List of Figures
Figure                                                          Page
1-1  Dutch Windmill                                                 7
1-2  Windmill in the Western United states 7
2 Principles of Hydroelectric Power Generation                           8
3 Solar Radiation and the Earth-Atmosphere                              8
4 the power wind energy over the world                                 10
5-1 vertically integrated moisture divergence                             10
5-2 monthly mean total                                              11
5-3 Monthly anomalies                                              11

 
1 Introduction
Renewable energy is addressed relative to fossil energy, it can be reused, such as solar energy and hydropower. Fossil energy whose origin is ancient geological changes -- animals and plants buried after the conversion to hydrocarbons, is now mainly used as fuel, such as coal, oil and natural gas. The tremendous emission of carbon dioxide from fossil energy usage process is the main cause of global warming. What is more, the world faces a severe energy crisis because of the rapid growth of fossil energy consumption as well as the non-renewable of fossil resources. Thus the urgent need to develop renewable energy has then been witnessed. And among them the kinds of renewable energy that has been used mostly as well as made substantial contribution are wind energy, water energy and solar energy. In this report a research about these kinds of energy will be revealed. Through which some beneficial conclusion will also be presented.



 
 
2 An introduction of three kinds of renewable energy
2.1 Concepts
2.1.1 Wind Energy
Wind energy is the kinetic energy generated by the air flow above the surface of the earth. Because of the difference of ground temperature changes after irradiation from the sun as well as the difference of water vapor of different areas in the air, the differences of pressure has thus be formed. Then the flow to the low pressure area from the high pressure area in horizontal direction will be caused, namely wind. Wind energy resource depends on the availability of wind energy density and the annual cumulative number of hours. The higher the air velocity is, the more kinetic energy there will be. The kinetic energy of the wind could be converted into rotary motion of the windmill to drive the generator to produce electricity. And the specific method is to transmit the rotary power of the rotor (composed of the air powered fan) to the generator through the transmission shaft. Until 2008, there is about 94.1 million kilowatts generated by wind power all over the world, and the power supply has been more than 1% of the total amount of electricity in the world. What deserves to be mentioned is from 1999 to 2005 the amount of wind energy has grown by more than four times.

Figure 1-1 Dutch Windmill (Fanchi, 2005)       Figure 1-2 Windmill in the
Western United states (Fanchi, 2005)
2.1.2 Water Energy
Water energy is a kind of renewable energy that mainly used for hydroelectric power generation. The potential energy and kinetic energy of water is converted into electricity in the process of hydroelectric generation. The formation of kinetic energy will be witnessed under the action of gravity of water drop, draw or channel water from the upper place down so as to converted the gravity potential energy of water into mechanical energy which could drive the generator to rotate to generate alternating current. Not only can water be used by man, it is also the energy carrier. The surface water is an important link of the reservoir of water energy, hydropower resources will be rich where the rate of flow of water is bigger. With dwindling of fossil fuels, water energy is a very important and promising alternative resource. The world is still in the initial stage of hydroelectric power.

Figure 2 Principles of Hydroelectric Power Generation (Fanchi, 2005)
2.1.3 Solar Energy
Solar Energy mainly refers to solar radiation energy, has been commonly used in modern power generation. Ever since the formation of the earth, organism mainly relies on the light and heat provided by the sun to survive and have learned to dry objects by the heat of the sun as well as a method of food preservation. In the increasingly reduction of fossil fuel, solar energy has become an important part of human usage of energy and continues to develop. There are two kinds of solar energy that is passive way photo-thermal conversion and the photoelectric conversion while solar power is an emerging renewable energy.

Figure 3 Solar Radiations and the Earth-Atmosphere (Fanchi, 2005)
 
2.2 Application of renewable energy in the world
2.2.1 Wind Energy
At present, Germany is still the most advanced countries in the global wind power technology. Germany's wind power installed capacity accounted for 28% of the world total amount, while the German wind power equipment production accounted for 37% of the global market. Exportation has become a major growth point of German wind power equipment company while the domestic market gradually saturated. And what has been the leader in the field of wind power, the European countries, has slowed down the growth rate. In Europe, a rate of 15% annual growth will be witnessed until 2015. One of the earliest developments of wind energy countries such as Germany, Denmark and other onshore wind farm construction tends to be saturated, the main development direction of next step is offshore wind farm and the renewal of equipment. There is greater potential for Britain, France and other countries, the average growth rate will be higher than 15%. The picture below shows the percentage of the wind energy of total renewable energy among some leader countries in the usage of wind energy.
 

Figure 4 the power wind energy over the world (Fairless, 2007)
2.2.2 Water Energy
America has always taken the lead in the development of water energy. According to the statistics on January 1, 1992, American a total number of 7261 hydropower stations with the installed capacity of 146700MW and the annual generating capacity of 529.4 billion kw*h. Here the development state recorded on North America can be a good case to show the development of water energy. As what has been shown by the pictures below.

Figure 5-1 vertically integrated moisture divergence for
North America in Eg mo-1 from ERA-I (blue) and MERRA(red)
(Trenberth & Fasullo, 2013)
 

Figure 5-2 monthly mean total

Figure 5-3 Monthly anomalies
 
2.2.3 Solar Energy
As what has been shown in the table below, the usage of solar energy all over the world has been recorded.
Table 1The variation of global solar cell production over the world (MW)(Singh, 2013)
Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
America 74.97 100.3 120 103.2 140 154 202 266.1 432 600
Japan 128.6 172.4 251 363.91 602 833 928 920 1300 1800
Europe 60.66 73.9 135 193.35 314 470 657 1062.8 2000 2800
China 3 4.6 10 10 50 200 400 1088 2600 4000
other countries 20.02 22.9 45 73.8 89 102 314 663.1 668 500
Total 287.65 374.1 561 744.26 1195 1759 2500 4000 7000 9700
 
What we can know from the table above is that the total amount global solar cell production in the whole world has been increased ever since the 21st century. What we can also notice from the table is that China and Europe has been witnessed going through a rapid growth in this field while Japan has been taking the lead in the first 6 years of the century. In 2009 the global solar cell production over the world is 9700MW.
3 Advantages and disadvantages exploration
To make the comparison much more obvious and direct, a table is used here to list both the advantages and disadvantages of the three kinds of energy.
Table 2 the list of advantages and disadvantages of the energy
Energy Advantages Disadvantages
Water Energy Renewable, clean and no pollution, low cost of power generation, much comprehensive benefits Greatly influenced by variation of seasonal precipitation, hardly dry season power generation, electricity is not stable, high requirements on the position
Solar Energy No pollution, harmless to the environment; can be sustainable in the long term; huge amount renewable energy Energy is not stable, vulnerable to be affected by regions and seasons
Wind Energy No need for transport, don't need to mining, clean, no pollution, renewable. Usage difficulty, affected by areas and seasons. Located in the coastal area and inland area.
It can be found from the table clearly that three kinds of energy are all affected by the areas and the climate. What makes the difference is that the wind energy electricity wind energy faces usage difficulty and the generation mechanisms are mostly located in the coastal area and inland are. Therefore, solar energy may be more prospective usage in the future.
4 Prospect of renewable energy
From the current development status of resources and the technical level of renewable energy, development of renewable energy in the future will still be hydropower, wind and solar energy as the main energy while there may also be biomass energy, geothermal energy, and tidal energy and so on. Wind power technology has been matured, the economy is close to conventional energy, and it will also maintain rapid development in the future for a long time. The main direction of development of solar energy is photovoltaic power generation and heat utilization, the main market of photovoltaic power generation is the recent independent power supply developed countries and the developing countries of the grid connected power generation in remote areas. The development direction of solar thermal utilization is the integration of solar energy building, and the conventional energy as a supplementary means, to achieve all-weather heating, improve the reliability of solar heating, further to the solar heating and cooling direction.
5. Conclusion
The paper firstly introduced three kinds of renewable energy that is solar energy, water energy and wind energy and presented the developing situation all over the world. Later both advantages and disadvantages of three kinds of energy is listed by a table. Last but not least, the prospect of three kinds of renewable energy as well as other kinds of renewable energy is briefly introduced.
Australia:A research of renewable energy of the current world代写
 
List of References
Fairless, D. (2007). Renewable energy: energy-go-round. Nature, 447(7148), 1046-1048.
Fanchi, J. R., & Fanchi, C. J. (2005). Energy in the 21st Century. Hackensack, NJ: World scientific.
Singh, G. K. (2013). Solar power generation by PV (photovoltaic) technology: A review. Energy, 53, 1-13.
Trenberth, K. E., & Fasullo, J. T. (2013). North American water and energy cycles. Geophysical Research Letters, 40(2), 365-369.
 Australia:A research of renewable energy of the current world代写