澳洲论文代写:The Main Research Methods in Psychology and the ‘

The Main Research Methods in Psychology and the ‘Gold-Standard’
With the development of psychology, there have been several types of research methods developed and practiced effectively. In this paper, five main research methods will be reviewed, that is, the case study, naturalistic observation, surveys, correlation design and experimental method (Myers, 2004). Following the brief introduction of the main research methods used in psychology, more information will be introduced to illustrate the reason why an experiment is regarded as the ‘gold-standard’ by numerous researchers.
Firstly, case study is conducted to get detailed information about a single individual so that general principles related to behaviors could be developed. This method is well-suited to studying unique disorders and also commonly used in comparative psychology. Case study has a high demand for time, effort and attention. However, it can reveal more detailed information about an individual than other research methods, though it may be not able to know the difference or similarity of an individual to others.
Secondly, naturalistic observation means that participants are under observation in natural fields. Researchers are trained to be inconspicuous and has no influence on the behavior of the participants and the environment around. For example, an anthropologist often observes wild gorillas in forests(Breuer, 2005). This method is time consuming, has no control for external environment, and it is difficult to test explanations.
Thirdly, surveys are conducted to access people's attitudes and beliefs by questioning them. An important concept related to survey is representative sample which reflects the characteristics of the population researchers want to study. The benefit of this method is that it is quick and efficient, and that researchers can look at many individuals at the same time. However, it is hard to gain in-depth knowledge and the participants may not be open and honest enough to answer the questions. In order to get reasonable conclusions, large numbers of samples should be included and the questions in the survey should also be carefully viewed to avoid the possibility of confusion or bias.
Australia:The Main Research Methods in Psychology and the ‘Gold-Standard’代写
.Australia:The Main Research Methods in Psychology and the ‘Gold-Standard’代写
Fourthly, correlation design is used to measure the relationship of two variables. Correlations are either positive or negative. Positive correlations refer to that as one variable goes up, the other variable goes up as well. Negative correlations are opposite from positive correlations, as one variable goes up, the other variable instead goes down. For instance, the correlation between health and eating junk food is negative (Rosenheck, 2008) while the correlation between health and exercise is positive (Blair, et al., 1985). Although results of correlation design can show how two variables are related to each other, it does not represent causation. There exists a kind of research method that can show the causation, which is known as experimental method. In the following passage, experimental method will be introduced in brief and the reason why it is considered to be the ‘gold-standard’ will be illustrated.
The last but the most often used method is experimental method in which researchers measure another variable or more following manipulating at least one variable. Participants in an experiment are firstly assigned to different groups according to the random list. In the experimental group, participants receive the manipulation and the other group is called the control group. If the results of experimental groups and control groups differ, it can be reasonably assumed that there exists an effect of the experimental manipulation. Experimental design is considered as “Gold standard” due to its rigorous and scientific design where Independent Variable (IV) is the one experimenter’s wishes to manipulate and Dependent variable is the one which depends on the IV. Random assignment and various controls are implemented to eliminate the influence resulted from confounding variables, which makes experiments to be the preferred research design. In particular, a placebo design or a double-blind design is often used in medical research (Kaptchuk, 2001).
Conclusion
In conclusion, there have been five main types of research methods used in psychology including the case study, naturalistic observation, surveys, correlation design and experimental method. These research methods have their own advantages and disadvantages with different functions and uses. In addition, among these research methods experiments are described as “Gold standard” with random assignment and various controls.
Reference
Australia:The Main Research Methods in Psychology and the ‘Gold-Standard’代写
Blair, S. N., Jacobs Jr, D. R., & Powell, K. E. 1985, 'Relationships between exercise or physical activity and other health behaviors', Public health reports, vol.100, no.2, pp. 172.
Breuer, T., Ndoundou-Hockemba, M., & Fishlock, V. 2005, 'First observation of tool use in wild gorillas', PLoS Biology, vol.3, no.11, pp.380.
Myers, D. G. 2004, Exploring psychology, Macmillan.
Kaptchuk, T. J. 2001, 'The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial: gold standard or golden calf?', Journal of clinical epidemiology, vol.54, no.6, pp.541-549.
Rosenheck, R. 2008, 'Fast food consumption and increased caloric intake: a systematic review of a trajectory towards weight gain and obesity risk', Obesity Reviews, vol.9, no.6, pp.535-547.